Phonetics and Phonology
Phonetics v.s. Phonology?
Both of them describes speech sounds or signs (phones).
Phonetics provides how actually phones are.
Phonetics is concerned with articulation, perception and physical properties.
Phonology provides the minimal regularities. It is similar to grammar.
Phonology is concerned with phones’ representations and systematic behavior.
Allophones v.s. Phonemes
A pair of phonemes are completely distinct (i.e. they can form a minimal pair). On the other hand, allophones may be representations for one phoneme.
English Transcription and Intonation
Uses IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet)